Commonly known as hospital-acquired infections, infections that occurs during surgery, infection in the respiratory or urinary tract or infection in the intestine, fall under the vast category of nosocomial infection. In other words, any infection which infest in patients who are already under medical care due to the unhealthy and unclean surrounding and facilities of the hospital is termed as nosocomial infection. Droplets, unclean linen, another patient suffering from any contagious disease, can cause nosocomial infection.
The various symptoms of this infection include:
- Night sweat
- Difficulty in breathing
- Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Nosocomial infections are most prevalent in the countries like India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Nepal. Bacteria, virus, and fungus are the major contributors to nosocomial infection. About 90% of bacteria spread through soiled hands or medical instruments like catheters. Many anti biotics are also responsible for causing nosocomial infection. The excessive use of anti biotics leads the body to grow bacteria which are tolerant towards bacteria, thus promoting nosocomial infection. Staphylococcus aureus is a bacteria which is unaffected by the anti biotoc called Methicillin. Excessive use of Methicillin provided to patients can cause diarrhea, one of the vital symptoms of nosocomial infection.
Being admitted to a hospital itself leaves chances of being at a risk of succumbing to nosocomial infection. Risk factors are enhanced by the following criteria:
- Use of catheter
- Prolonged use anti biotics
- Minimized defence against bacteria
- Any other patient with you in the same room
Prolonged stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for a long span of time, makes you more prone to nosocomial infection. If the hospital is situated in an unclean area, and if the medical wastes are not properly disposed of then the risk of nosocomial infection increases.
As nosocomial infection is spread widely due to unclean and unhealthy surrounding, the need of the hour is to keep the area around the hos
To conclude, proper sanitation is a must to prevent nosocomial infection. Thus, with a clean and healthy environment around patients, nosocomial infection can be prevented.